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CIDS Report no. 1 2021

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CIDS is proud to publish CIDS Report no. 1 2021, “Obeying Unlawful Orders: Continuity of Personnel Involved in Human Rights Violations and its Impact on Reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The purpose of the paper is to research the issue of personnel involved in human rights violations during the 1992-95 Bosnian War and its impact on reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina today. A large number of military and police personnel took part in human rights violations, thus constituting the central element of the perpetrator network. However, the role of the unarmed personnel participating in these violations has been insufficiently explored by academic research. The unarmed personnel in question include civil servants, politicians, and persons employed by private enterprises. A quarter of a century since the end of the Bosnian war, a significant number of these individuals continue to take part in public life and to work in public administration.

The aim of this report is to shed light on this issue, and to demonstrate that these individuals’ ability to evade accountability for their actions has serious implications for the processes of political reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

We all need to remind ourselves about the fact that the integrity of civil servants, militaries and police is a prerequisite for states to work in the interest of their citizens. When power is abused, the citizens are dependent on that their servants are standing up against the forces that challenge the rule of law, and that they will not obey their superior’s illegal orders”.

You can find the report on the CIDS Publications page.

GGG no. 10, “Guide on Whistleblowing in the Defence and Security Sector” published

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The Guide on whistleblowing in the defence and security sector contains practical advice and measures for those receiving or dealing with a report of wrongdoing, based on how cases of whistleblowing are handled in the Norwegian Defence Sector.

The Guide has been developed based on procedures and experiences from different agencies in this sector.The Guide is intended to increase general awareness about whistleblowing and different whistleblowing situations, to enable managers and others who receive reports of wrongdoing to deal with this in a proper manner, and to identify and prevent wrongdoing in the sector.

You can find the report on the CIDS Publications page.

NATO BI ADC Conference 14 October 2020

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This year’s Building Integrity Annual Discipline Conference (ADC) will take place on 14 October 2020 14:00-17:00 (Brussels time) virtually due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

The ADC provides an excellent opportunity for relevant stakeholders involved in the BI discipline to synchronize their work. The primary aim of the conference is to achieve an adequate alignment and coordination of efforts in sustaining the discipline.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the 2020 BI ADC which was planned as a two-day event in Rome has had to be been scaled down and adapted to a virtual setting. It will therefore be held in the afternoon 14 October in order to ensure that we have our stakeholders in North America on board. It will be focused on interaction with the BI Education and Training Facilities. The participation will be from NATO Training facilities or other institutions that contribute with training and education solutions, from NATO or Partner countries. The NATO Requirement Authority will naturally also participate. The ADC is also open to other Department Heads and interested NATO entities.

Hopefully next year will be back to normal so that we once again can organise a larger conference with broader participation in Rome.

The aim of the conference is to update participants on the developments within the discipline since the previous ADC.  The conference will seek to update and validate the training requirements and the existing training solutions. Participants are welcome to propose new training opportunities, which will be further scrutinised by the Department Head and potentially identified as suitable solutions for the existing requirements.

The ADC is an opportunity for the participants to share any E&T-related matters and best practices, to propose new approaches and to outline the way ahead for the discipline.  The results of the ADC will be included in a Discipline Alignment Plan (DAP) that will be drafted by the DH and approved by HQ SACT/JFD.

Participation is expected from: NATO International Staff, NATO Military Authorities, relevant Centres of Excellence, E&T Providers and other entities that support NATO E&T requirements for BI.

Registration to Dr Lidra Zegali, NATO HQ: zegali.lidra@hq.nato.int and Ms Annette Hurum, CIDS: ah@fd.dep.no by COB Thursday 8 October  2020. Once your registration has been accepted, you will receive information on how to join the conference.

Assistance to the Western Balkans

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Building Integrity in the Defence and Security Sectors in Countries in the Western Balkan Region

  • Total amount 2015-2020: NOK 36,125 mill.
  • Objective: To strengthen integrity and good governance in defence and interior ministries in several Western Balkan countries.
  • Project owner: Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector (CIDS) in The Norwegian Ministry of Defence.
  • Countries involved: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia.

Objectives and Contents
The main objective is to contribute to increased integrity and good governance in defence and interior ministries in the region, with a special focus on Human Resource Management (HRM), Public Procurement and overarching integrity frameworks. The project contributes to increased stability and improved pursuance of the rule of law in the participating countries. It also assists them in their cooperation with the EU and NATO. For Allies this is especially important as a contribution to safe-guard NATO’s Area of Responsibility. NATO’s International Staff is increasingly interested in cooperating on joint NATO-CIDS projects.

Achieved Results

  • The development and implementation of a strategy for a Human Resource policy for the Police Force in Montenegro.
  • In cooperation with NATO, the development and implementation of internal rules and regulations regarding all aspects of the procurement chain in the Bosnian MOD.
  • The development of an analysis and evaluation of corruption risks related to positions in the Bosnian MOD. More than 200 measures for risk-reduction are currently being implemented.
  • An evaluation of the organisational structure of the MOI in Kosovo. An analysis of HRM in Kosovo’s Police Force.
  • CIDS has contributed to the development and implementation of a first and second generation of integrity plans as well as a strategy for Human Resource Policy for the MOD and the Armed Forces in Kosovo.
  • In Albania, the project has analysed the Human Resource Management in MOI. CIDS is also assisting the police in improving their recruitment system.

Overview of Cooperation with the Countries in the Western Balkan Region
CIDS cooperates with both the Ministries of Defence (MOD), Ministries of Interior (MOI) and the Police Force, depending on the interest of the host country.

CountryMODMOIPolice
AlbaniaXX
Bosnia-HerzegovinaX
KosovoXXX
MontenegroXXX
North MacedoniaX

Background Information
Since 2015, The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) has funded the project “Building Integrity in the Western Balkans” on two occasions. The CIDS (Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector) in MOD is responsible for the implementation of the project. In the first period from 2015 to 2018, the project was funded with NOK 18 mill for activities in three countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Montenegro. The same amount was granted by the MFA for the second period from 2018 to 2020. The project portfolio was later expanded to include Albania (2019) and North Macedonia (2020) with a total amount of NOK 18,125 mill.

The celebration of the entering into effect of the second period of the CIDS project, at Budva, Montenegro, May 2019, with participants from all the involved countries and ministries. The “Protocols of Intent” with the different ministries were signed at the same venue.

GGG no. 9 , “Delegating Decision-making – Developing Professional Management in Public Institutions published

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The paper describes the legal arrangements that enable orderly and accountable delegation of responsibility within public administration. Delegation is regarded as a condition for good administration and for sound management practices. However, this notion depends on national legislation being properly designed to open up for such delegation. The paper is based on broadly accepted practices of delegation in different EU member states and provides comparative information for legal and organisational design. At the same time, the paper shows how difficult it would be to foster a professional senior civil service – including public management values like efficiency if, at the interface between politics and administration, the instrument of delegation is not applied.

You can find the report on the CIDS Publications page.

CIDS Report nr. 1/2020 published

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CIDS is proud to publish CIDS Report nr. 1/2020, report “A Study on Legal Formalism in the Former Yugoslavia and its Successor States”.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of legal formalism in the former Yugoslavia and its successor states. The report is primary focusing on answering a number of questions:

  • first and foremost, what is legal formalism?
  • what are its historical roots in former Yugoslavia and its successor states?
  • how did this phenomenon survived the regime changes in the Balkans?
  • how does this approach influence today’s interpretation of law?
  • in what way has the education system and legal scholars responded to the challenges of legal formalism?

Finally, prospects of overcoming legal formalism is discussed.

You can find the report on the CIDS Publications page.

BI ADC Conference 15. October 2019

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This year’s Building Integrity Annual Discipline Conference (ADC) will take place on 15 October 2019 at NATO HQ in Brussels, Belgium.

The ADC provides an excellent opportunity for relevant stakeholders involved in the BI discipline to synchronize their work. The primary aim of the conference is to achieve an adequate alignment and coordination of efforts in sustaining the discipline.

Due to the fact that a high level Building Integrity Conference was held in Washington earlier this year, the 2019 BI ADC will be a smaller event compared to last year.  As a consequence it will be limited to one day and more focussed on interaction with the BI Education and Training Facilities.  The participation will therefore be limited to participation from NATO Training facilities or other institutions that contribute with training and education solutions, from NATO or Partner countries. The NATO Requirement Authority will naturally also participate. The ADC is also open to other Department Heads and  interested NATO entities. One delegate should represent each organization only.

Next year we will once again organise a larger conference with broader participation.

The aim of the conference is to update participants on the developments within the discipline since the previous ADC.  The conference will seek to update and validate the training requirements and the existing training solutions. Participants are welcome to propose new training opportunities, which will be further scrutinised by the Department Head and potentially identified as suitable solutions for the existing requirements.

The ADC is an opportunity for the participants to share any E&T-related matters and best practices, to propose new approaches and to outline the way ahead for the discipline.  The results of the ADC will be included in a Discipline Alignment Plan (DAP) that will be drafted by the DH and approved by HQ SACT/JFD.

Participation is expected from: NATO International Staff, NATO Military Authorities, relevant Centres of Excellence, E&T Providers and other entities that support NATO E&T requirements for BI.

Registration to Dr Lidra Zegali, NATO HQ: zegali.lidra@hq.nato.int and Ms Annette Hurum, CIDS: ah@fd.dep.no by COB Wednesday 25 September  2019.

Guide to Good Governance no. 8 published

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CIDS is proud to publish the eight booklet of the series “Guide to Good Governance” (GGG).  In  “On the Needs and Functions of Codes of Ethics”,  the role of ethics in the public sector is discussed, focusing on the concept of ethics and how governments can enhance ethical standards within their bureaucratic systems.

You can find the document in “Publications” on this site.

Fraud and Hybrid Threats

One of CIDS’ most important partners – Building Integrity UK – has recently published two articles on fraud and hybrid threats. Read them here!

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GCFP Journal – Issue 1 – FINAL

 

Operational doctrine work and its relation to building integrity and transparency, accountability and counter-corruption in the Norwegian defence system. Status as of January 2019

In 2014, the Norwegian Defence Joint Operational Doctrine (Forsvarets Fellesoperative Doktrine– FFOD) included a paragraph (para 02127) on integrity and TACC (Transparency, Accountability and Counter Corruption). This was a milestone achievement since integrity/TACC in full was made a requirement to meet for the operational trainers, educators and operators. According to Transparency International Defence and Security (TI DS) Government Defence Index on corruption risks in defence, one of the traditional shortfalls in defence systems across the globe, was a lack of mentioning of integrity/TACC in cornerstone documents like operational doctrines. By including this topic in the FFOD 2014, Norway as one of the lead nations of the NATO BI program, took responsibility for implementing integrity/TACC in national operational education and training. This responsibility has also been voiced by the Norwegian representative at various operational doctrine working group meetings within NATO.

In the new edition of the FFOD, due shortly, paragraph 02127 will remain with the same wording as in the previous FFOD, and furthermore expanded into para 05110 under Cyberwarfare label. As a consequence of the integrity/TACC focus in the FFOD, the Navy Doctrine (para 04063) and Air Doctrine (05042, 05043) both have paragraphs on integrity/TACC included. The revised land doctrine is currently in a drafting process. There is an expectation that this doctrine will include integrity/TACC as well, due to be launched late 2019.

The Norwegian language text in respective doctrines is as follows:

Joint Ops Doctrine (FFOD), para 02127: Deployerte styrkers integritet i samvirke med allierte, vertslandet og eksterne aktører vil i større eller mindre grad påvirke både evnen til å løse oppdrag og selve oppdragsløsningen. Spesielt i områder preget av svak statsdannelse og uryddige samfunnsforhold er det viktig at militære styrker er demonstrativt ryddige i samhandling både med representanter for statsmakten, private aktører og autoritetspersoner utenfor statsmakten (klan- og stammeledere). Samhandling med aktører i operasjonsområdet krever et tydelig etisk rammeverk, samt kultur- og samfunnsforståelse. De deployerte styrkene må selv ha slik kompetanse for at man ikke skal undergrave egne operasjoner ved å bli brukt i lokale maktkamper eller la seg fange inn i korrupsjon. Korrupsjon kan redusere en militær operasjons evne til å nå sine mål og vil også undergrave de politiske hensikter med operasjonen. Styrkene må derfor vise aktsomhet slik at de ikke bidrar til korrupsjon i sitt operasjonsområde og, der det er mulig, bidra til å avdekke og forhindre korrupsjon.

Cyber chapter, para 05110: Cybersikkerhet er en integrert del av fellesoperasjoner for å sikre at operasjonene og styrkene i minst mulig grad blir påvirket av cybertrusler. Dette omfatter defensive cyberoperasjoner og sikkerhetsovervåking i fred, krise og krig. Cybersikkerhet gjennomføres kontinuerlig for å forebygge, avdekke og håndtere uønskede digitale hendelser. Hensikten er å sikre egne styrkers handlefrihet og operativ evne gjennom å beskytte konfidensialitet, integritet, tilgjengelighet, autentisitet og sporbarhet i egen kontrollert CIS.

Maritime doctrine, para 04063: I FFOD (pkt 02122) pekes generelt på at deployerte norske styrkers integritet i samvirke med allierte, aktuelt vertsland og eksterne aktører vil kunne påvirke både evnen til å løse oppdrag, og selve oppdragsløsningen. Videre at samhandling med aktører i operasjonsområder utenlands krever et tydelig etisk rammeverk, samt kultur- og samfunnsforståelse. I oppdrag utenlands vil operasjoner kunne foregå i samvirke med eller i tilknytning til nasjoner og myndigheter med annet verdisett, og i en kontekst med nedsatte samfunnsfunksjoner. Også maritime styrker vil møte utfordringer knyttet til kontraktsinngåelse, bruk av lokalt ansatte og lokale ressurser, kontakt med lokale myndigheter, ressursforvaltning- og kontroll, håndheving av egne styrkers sikkerhet, og samvirke. Kontrakts- og avtaleinngåelse knyttet til eksempelvis levering av drivstoff, andre lokale anskaffelser, samt kjøp av tjenester må foretas etter gjeldende norsk og internasjonalt anerkjent regelverk og praksis. Nasjonal styrkesjef bør utarbeide og implementere retningslinjer (anti-korrupsjonsdirektiv) for operasjonen som støtter ivaretakelse av egne styrkers integritet. Styrkesjef eller avdelingssjef vil være ansvarlig for at personell er trent og innehar nødvendig kompetanse på området, og at undergitte er kjent med og etterlever krav til integritet.

Air Doctrine, para 05042: I forbindelse med internasjonale deployeringer, vil norske offiserer og spesialister kunne komme opp i situasjoner som utfordrer deres integritet. Disse utfordringene vil kunne påvirke opp-dragsløsningen. Slike utfordringer kan oppstå i samarbeid med allierte, styrker fra et vertskapsland eller andre aktører i et operasjonsteater. I internasjonale operasjoner må man påregne å samarbeide med personell fra andre kulturer med et annet verdisett enn vårt. Det er ikke usannsynlig at området man skal operere i har reduserte samfunnsfunksjoner. 
Air Doctrine, para 05043: Personellet vil kunne møte slike utfordringer i kontakt med lokale myndigheter og lokale leve-randører og i forbindelse med lokale anskaffelser og kjøp av tjenester av alle slag. Alt slikt skal foretas etter gjeldende norsk og internasjonalt regelverk og praksis. Norske styrker skal ha et særskilt øye for å unngå å bidra til korrupsjon i områder der det er en utfordring. Det er nasjonal styrkesjef sitt ansvar å utarbeide relevante retningslinjer for det nasjonale bidraget i operasjonen som sørger for at norske styrkers integritet opprettholdes. Sjefer på alle nivåer er ansvarlige for at deres personell innehar kompetanse på, er kjent med og etterlever kravene til integritet.